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Independent Professionals: Legal Issues and Challenges

November, 2015
Although independent professionals have until recently been generally neglected by the academic community, including by specialists in both management and entrepreneurism, IPros cannot avoid being subject to key areas of regulation, such as fiscal policy, especially personal taxation, the law relating to business associations, employment law and social protections. This is chapter 9 of the Handbook of Research on Freelancing and Self-Employment.

Organising Freelancers: A Hard Case or a New Opportunity?

Michael Wynn
November, 2015
Freelance workers present a special challenge in terms of collective labour organisation. As an individualistic and highly dispersed workforce, they are both difficult to recruit and represent. This paper explores the operational and legal difficulties that freelancers pose for trade unions in terms of collective representation. This is chapter 10 of the Handbook of Research on Freelancing and Self-Employment.

What’s in a Name? The Value of ‘Entrepreneurs’ Compared to ‘Self-Employed’... But What about ‘Freelancing’ or ‘IPro’?

November, 2015
This paper is concerned with those individuals who do not fit easily or comfortably into traditional notions of employment. It explores some of the important implications and consequences that this blurring of boundaries has for social as well as government interest and their support of the individual operating as a nano-business. This is chapter 11 of the Handbook of Research on Freelancing and Self-Employment

Freelancers, Self-Employment and the Insurance against Social Risks

Uwe Fachinger Anna Frankus
November, 2015
In contrast to dependent employees, most self-employed people are free to choose if they wish to insure themselves against social risks such as longevity, illness, or long term care. Unfortunately, we know very little about the situation of self-employed people regarding the protection against social risks, as reliable data is missing. Against the background of the upsurge of these professions, this lack of coverage is indicative of an increasingly precarious position or social exclusion of those groups. This is chapter 12 of the Handbook of Research on Freelancing and Self-Employment.

Determinants of the Own-Account Worker’s Decision to Hire Employees: A Review

Concepción Román
November, 2015
This paper reviews a small stream of empirical literature on job creation by own-account workers which, by using the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), focuses on the determinants of the own-account worker’s decision to hire employees. This is chapter 13 of the Handbook of Research on Freelancing and Self-Employment.

Future Working: The Rise of Europe’s Independent Professionals

November, 2013
The report explores who independent professionals (iPros) are and the environments in which they work, why they choose to work independently and what factors encourage and hinder their success. This ground breaking report provides us for the first time, a deeper understanding of what motivates and drives iPros and the barriers they face. Finally it makes a series of key recommendations that would benefit not just the 9 million iPros that operate in Europe but also the EU economy as a whole.

The Role of Freelancers in the 21st Century British Economy

November, 2012
The report explores the use of freelancers, and how effective they are in adding value, in 23 firms comprising a mix of corporations and SMEs. These businesses are drawn from some of the major industries driving the British economy including manufacturing, information and communications, financial services, and professional, scientific and technical activities.

Exploring the UK Freelance Workforce, 2011

David Smallbone
July, 2012
This report, following on from research conducted on the nature and size of the UK freelance marketplace in 2008 presents data drawn from official UK government sources to develop a picture of the current UK freelance workforce and looks at trends in freelance working.

European I-Pros: A Study

Stéphane Rapelli
May, 2012
The aim of this study is to suggest a socio-demographic characterisation of I-pros across Europe, and specify the main related trends. Insofar as no official definition exists for this type of self-employed worker, a pragmatic definition is constructed in the light of existing socioeconomic classifications.

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